Planning is not based on recent data and accurate information. e. g. Although a settlement has continued to grow, the current structure is not studied or understood when planning the street network (The gaps in relevant data also result in project designs that lack measurable objectives, baseline data and indicators to adequately determine progress towards performance)

Implementation of the planning has not been budgeted. Without linking it to financial planning, spatial planning cannot be implemented.

The planning process can take too long time, with new spatial developments complicating the process.

The planning approach is merely technocratic and does not consider social and economic aspects and impacts for urban development.

The planning is not participatory and/or doesn’t local needs into account. This can especially happen when the planning is done by external planners i.e. consultants/national level agencies.

The planning does not consider the wider scope, e.g. regional or national plans, the system of cities, and potential complementarities i.e. for regional infrastructure.

Planning is merely two dimensional. The third (spatial realities) and fourth (development) is left out over time.

Planners do not integrate other line agencies, such as authorities responsible for water, electricity, solid waste etc.

Planning is too locally focused – it then benefits some parts of the city but ignores the impacts on other areas.

Future factors are not sufficiently factored into the plans, such as population growth, future extension areas the sea level rise etc.